science friction

On the Move!df

10 Key Facts you learnt in today’s session:

  • Potential energy is stored energy.
  • A resting ball in your hand has potential energy.
  • Moving energy is known as kinetic energy.
  • When you release the ball gravity takes over changing the energy to kinetic energy.
  • Energy is transferred, it is never lost.
  • When the ball hits the ground it’s shape changes, some energy is transferred into heat and sound energy, some energy is absorbed by the surface it hits, the rest of the energy makes the ball bounce back up.
  • If a ball has the potential to change shape (i.e. squishy) more of its energy is converted to help change the shape when it hits the floor – so it doesn’t bounce back up as high.
  • The material a ball is made of makes a difference to the height it can bounce.
  • We can illustrate the conversion of mechanical energy into heat energy when two chrome steel balls are smashed together; enough heat is generated at the point of contact to burn a hole in a piece of ordinary paper!
  • Wind up, spring loaded and rubber band toys all show potential and kinetic energy.

How attractive!

10 Key Facts you learnt in today’s science club:

  • Magnets have a North and a South Pole.
  • The Earth acts as though it has a magnet inside it, with a magnetic South and a magnetic North.
  • Like poles, South to South or North to North, repel.
  • Opposite poles, North to South, attract.
  • Magnets are often iron containing, solid objects.
  • Iron filings can be separated from sand with a magnet.
  • Not all metal objects are magnetic.
  • Ferrofluid is a liquid containing microscopic particles of iron.
  • The electrons in the atoms of magnetic objects are all, or nearly all, spinning in the same direction around the nucleus. This is what causes an object to be magnetic.
  • An electromagnet is a type of magnet whose magnetic field is produced by the flow of electrical current.

dfHair Raising Electrons !

10 Key Facts you learnt in today’s science club:

  • We can create static electricity with friction.
  • Static electricity can give us static shocks.
  • Atoms make up everything.
  • In an atom there are protons (positive) and electrons (negative).
  • Balloons pick up electrons from our hair, becoming negatively charged.
  • Two different charges attract.
  • Two charges the same repel.
  • Lightening is formed by the friction created from small pieces ice in the clouds bumping together.
  • Electricity always wants to find the quickest way to the ground.
  • If you are in a lightening storm, stay away from open fields with tall trees!

It’s a balancing act!

10 Key Facts you learnt in today’s science club:

  • We keep our balance by shifting our weight around.
  • Our centre of gravity changes when we stand on one leg.
  • If you cant shift your centre of gravity, you loose you balance.
  • Jumping Beans find the centre of gravity as they roll down the track.
  • Gyroscopes keep changing their centre of gravity whist they spin.
  • Originally, gyroscopes were used in navigational systems, but modern equipment such as Apple’s iPad and iPhone have integrated them.
  • Newton's First Law of motion - every object in motion continues in motion, until an outside force acts upon it. This is known as inertia.
  • Bumper cars are a good example of inertia; when collide with another bumper car, you feel a jolt. This is because your body's inertia wants it to keep travelling in the same direction it was moving.
  • A rollercoaster car doing an upside down loop uses inertia to stop you falling out.
  • Your whirling penny balloon uses centripetal force to ‘stick’ to the edge of the balloon.

What goes up, must come down!df

10 Key Facts you learnt in today’s science club:

  • Gravity is the force that keeps you “attached” to the Earth.
  • Without gravity we wouldn’t have an atmosphere and would float off into space!
  • Sir Isaac Newton (1642 –1727) theorised gravity with the analogy of an apple falling from tree.
  • Newton’s Third Law of motion - every action has an equal and opposite reaction.
  • Hover CD’s are a good example of Newton’s third law,  as air rushes out of the balloon pushing against the table, the disc levitates in the opposite direction.
  • Finger traps demonstrate how pulling in one direction causes the trap to tighten in the other direction.
  • Centripetal force keeps water inside the bucket allowing us to swing bucket overhead without spilling one drop.
  • A rocket launch involves a range forces including gravity, air resistance, thrust and aerodynamics.
  • Your straw rocket works as air pushes the cone, thrusting the rocket up and gravity pulls it back down.
  • Parachutes use air resistance to slow down the gravitational pull, enabling a safe landing.

The force is with you!

Congratulations, you have made it through the Science Friction programme! We hope you enjoyed your journey of science exploration and are inspired to continue to investigate the world we live in and discover how things work.

Take a look at our online science resources for ideas of science experiments you can do at home.

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