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To Breathe or Not to Breathe

10 Key Facts you learnt in today’s session:

  • The air that surrounds us is full of tiny things called molecules, these are what make up the gases that make air!
  • Earths atmosphere is made up of 78% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen and 1% other gases such as Argon and Carbon Dioxide.
  • Every planet has a different make up of gases to make their own atmosphere, no planet has an atmosphere quite like ours.
  • With our stormy pirate ship experiment, we found out that fire takes the oxygen out of the air, and because it needs to be replaced with something, sucks up the water saving our ship from the pirates!
  • Air can be high or low pressure. High air pressure is when lots of molecules are in a small space and low pressure being not many air molecules in a large space.
  • When you reduce the air pressure inside something (like a vacuum), the higher air pressure outside fights to get in, putting lots of pressure on the object. This is why our tug of war with air was so difficult to open!
  • We can blow a candle out with something circular in front of it, but not something square! This is because air travels faster around a smooth, round object and helps to explain why an airplane's wing is areodynamic
  • Scientists believe the world was created about 4.5 BILLION years ago, and that the atmosphere back then was mostly made up of water vapour and carbon dioxide.
  • Due to plants photosynthesising (taking in carbon dioxide and releasing oxygen) for millions of years, the atmosphere on Earth now contains 21% oxygen.
  • We need oxygen in the air to breathe, and planets like Mercury have an atmosphere of 42% oxygen, but we could not live on Mercury because the atmosphere also contains 29% sodium, which is poisonous to humans in large amounts!

Time Travelling transport

10 Key Facts you learnt in today’s session:

  • Back in the 1800’s people used to use steam to power trains, candles and oil to light their homes and scrub boards to wash their clothes as there was no electricity.
  • The hot air balloon is the oldest successful human-carrying flight technology, and it works because hot air rises because it is less dense than cold air, therefore making the balloon float!
  • A type of transport can have loads of different ways to make it work, for example: Steam, solar energy, wind power, hydro power, battery, mechanical, chemical, fossil fuel and many more!
  • The first car was introduced in 1910!
  • Friction is the force that slows us down, it is used by wheels on cars and other automobiles to retain grip when going round corners
  • Hovercrafts work by floating on a cushion of air, therefore they hover just above the ground.
  • Hovercrafts are used to rescue people stuck in places normal automobiles cannot reach, to move cargo over large bodies of water and to help the military in places they suspect mines may be present.
  • Our salt water cars are powered by electrolysis! This is where the composition of a chemical change when an electric current is passed through it.
  • Our Strandbeests are actually real life mechanical structures that live on beaches in Holland and are powered by the wind.
  • Pop Pop boats are powered by steam which propels the along the water.

Rocky Mountains

10 Key Facts you learnt in today’s session:

  • Sciencetists beieve that our world used to be one landmass, but over time it has broken up into the continents we know today.
  • The Earth produces more than 1 million earthquakes a year. Because of these earthquakes, the continents are drifting further apart each year.
  • Rocks are made up from minerals in the form of grains. Some rocks have rounded grains like sandstone which means they let water in and are more crumbley. Whereas some rocks have grains that interlock and are really hard to break such as granite.
  • Rocks flowing down a river settle at the bottom, more rock settles on top squashing the rock underneath, over thousands of years this turns into sedimentary rock.
  • Sedimentary rocks may contain fossils that have been trapped in the rocks as they were formed.
  • The core of the Earth is so hot that rocks exist as a liquid. This molten rock is known as magma.
  • When magma cools, it forms a solid again. The speed at which it cools determines the size of the crystals formed in the rock.
  • Big crystals in rocks mean that the magma cooled slowly, like granite. When the magma cools quickly this means the crystals in the rock will be small, like basalt.
  • Mount Kilauea (Hawaii) is the most active volcano in the world, it releases over 100 million gallons of lava a day!
  • There are 3 different types of volcano; composite cone volcanoes, cinder cone volcanoes and shield cone volcanoes.

Monsterous Insects

10 Key Facts you learnt in today’s session:

  • To be classed as an insect, you must have a head, a thorax, an abdomen and 6 legs. Some insects have wings, and some have antenna, but these are not compulsory to be classified as an insect.
  • There are known to be 900 thousand different kinds of living insects on planet earth. There are more than 9,500 species of ants, and many more yet to be discovered. When combined, all the ants in the world weigh about as much as all the people in the world!
  • Bee’s can carry up to 90% of their own body weight in pollen and still travel up to 30 mph!
  • Every living thing has its own lifecycle, from being born to maturing to producing offspring of its own to dying.
  • Different insects all have a job in the world, such as bees pollinating flowers and plants. Ladybirds eat plant parasites, cleaning up and letting the plant grow. Silk worms produce silk that we can use to make fabric!
  • A bee flaps its wings 230 times a minute in order to fly.
  • Many insects have different eyes to us, called compound eyes. Some insects such as the fly see through thousands of different points - to us it looks like a kaleidoscope!
  • For every human being on the planet there are about 200 million insects! All the insects in the world weigh 300 times more than all the humans weigh!
  • Insects do not have lungs! They breathe through opening on the side of their cuticles, not their mouths.
  • There are over 5000 species of ladybugs in colours like red, pink, yellow, orange and even black! Not all ladybirds are red and spotty, some are black and brown, some don’t even have spots! If a ladybug lands on you, it is considered good luck!

Signs of Life

10 Key Facts you learnt in today’s session:

  • People that dig up fossils and bones are called Archeologist and people who study prehistoric life and fossils are called Paleontologists.
  • Fossils are the remains of animals and plants preserved and turned into rocks. They can be the actual bones that have not decayed or they can be impressions of footprints etc that have been fill in with sediment and formed rock.
  • North America has the largest amount of fossils ever found.
  • Dinosaurs lived on this earth for 165 million years, whereas humans have only lived on this earth for 100,000 years.
  • The word dinosaur is Greek for ‘Terrible lizard’ and this term was first used in 1842 by British paleontologist Richard Owen.
  • The most common theory to what killed the dinosaurs off is a giant meteorite that struck Earth just off the coast of Mexico. It was so huge that it would have sents lots of dust and water vapour up into the atmosphere, blocking the sun out and changing Earth's climate, therefore killing the dinosaurs and the vegetation they lived on.
  • Stanley Miller and Harold Uley carried out an experiment in 1952 to see if they could recreate the conditions life needed to start. They found by sending electricity through an atmosphere like ours used to be, they made amino acids, the basic building blocks of life!
  • In order for a planet to sustain life as we know it, it needs a source of nutrients, an atmosphere and water.
  • Water plays a vital part of life on Earth because everything needs water to survive. One of Jupiter's Moons, Europa, is thought to have a surface of water ice and an atmosphere composed primarily of oxygen, which led scientists to the hypothesis that a water ocean exists beneath the surface where extraterrestrial life could exist.

Gone With The Wind

10 Key Facts you learnt in today’s session:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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