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Feeling Hot, Hot, Hot!sdf

10 Key Facts you learnt in today’s science club:

  • Everything in the world is made of tiny atoms.
  • When atoms are hot they move around and take up lots of space.
  • When they are cold they don’t move much and huddle together like penguins.
  • In a solid the atoms are tightly packed together without much movement, as we heat them they get lots of energy and start to take up more space.
  • We can change through the states of matter by heating or cooling.
  • An ice cube is water in its solid form. When we apply heat, we melt the ice into a liquid and it takes up more space. If we heat the water further, we cause the liquid to evaporate and become a gas or water vapour and it fills every space in the room.
  • We use thermometers to measure temperature changes.
  • An ENDOTHERMIC reaction is a chemical reaction that produces a drop in temperature and feels colder than it was at the start.
  • An EXOTHERMIC reaction is a chemical reaction that produces a temperature increase and feels hotter than it was at the start.
  • How do kernels turn into POPCORN? – The heat from the machine causes water molecule inside the kernels to heat up, move very fast, expand and then explode through the kernel skin!

Awesome Air!

10 Key Facts you learnt in today’s science club:

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  • Air is a mixture of gases that surrounds the Earth.
  • Air presses on us all the time from all directions.
  • Lots of air molecules in a space = high air pressure (tightly packed together)
  • Few molecules in a space = low air pressure (spread out/ big gaps between molecules
  • Mr Bernoulli discovered that fast moving air is low air pressure. You can make some fast moving air by blowing onto your hand.
  • Air takes up space. When we use the air cannons we make the space smaller and the air is forced out.
  • This creates fast moving air (low air pressure) and the air in the room joins in to blow you away!
  • When we blow very hard through a straw, we can levitate a ball on the end and defy gravity!
  • The fast moving air from the straw is low air pressure and cradles the ball.
  • When we stomp on the air rocket pump the air is pushed out with a large force and blasts the rocket off the end!

Slimey Science!

  • Key Facts you learnt in today’s science club:
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  • Materials have different properties. They could be stretchy, sticky, moist, heavy, light, bouncy, float, sink, absorb, flammable, runny, wet, dry, transparent, soft, hard, fine, coarse or even lumpy.
  • Some materials can soak up lots of water and are very absorbent.
  • There is an absorbent chemical in nappies which is used to soak up lots of fluid.
  • Some materials can burn very quickly and are flammable.
  • The end of a match is very flammable when ignited.
  • What properties does your slime have? Slime is stretchy, sticky and moist.
  • We made our slime from polyvinyl alcohol glue which is very sticky and runny.
  • PVA is made up from long chains of molecules called polymers.
  • We changed the properties of the PVA when we added borax. This caused a change in the molecules - a chemical reaction.
  • Borax is a cross-linking chemical that pulls the long polymer chains of PVA together to make it slimey.

 

How Dense are you?

10 Key Facts you learnt in today’s science club:

  • In a solid the molecules are tightly packed together and can hardly move.
  • A solid keeps its own shape unless we cut it or shape it ourselves.
  • In a liquid the molecules are not so tightly packed. They can move a little.
  • Liquids are runny, flow downwards and can be poured. They take the shape of the container they are in. The surface of a liquid stays level.
  • In a gas the molecules have lots of room and move around all over the place all the time.
  • Gases are all around us, spreading into any empty spaces they can. Most gases are invisible.
  • Do all liquids weigh the same? No. Even Liquids can vary in the number of molecules tightly packed into the same space. We call this density! Density is weight compared to size.
  • Different liquids have different densities.
  • Things that are less dense sit on top of things that are more dense. Syrup is really dense and sits at the bottom of a cup. Water is less dense and sits on top of syrup. Oil is less dense than water and sits on the very top.
  • Marbling inks used to make our pictures are oil based and as oil is less dense than water, they do not mix and sit on top.

Chem-mystery!

10 Key Facts you learnt in today’s science club:

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  • Chemical changes happen all the time in our bodies and in the kitchen.
  • In a “physical reaction” molecules do not change. Ripping paper is a physical reaction.
  • In a “chemical reaction” bonds between the atoms are broken and atoms join with other atoms to form new molecules.
  • When we burnt paper, we saw a chemical reaction as the molecules in the paper changed.
  • The signs of a chemical change include: temperature change, colour change, gas is produced or something new has been made.
  • We get nutrients from the food we eat
  • Digestion is a chemical reaction and how we break foods down to get nutrients.
  • Starch is a nutrient that give us energy
  • Iodine turns black when it come into contact with starch, indicating a chemical reaction has occurred.
  • Non-Newtonian fluid has the properties of a solid and a liquid and reacts to pressure. This is a physical reaction.

Under Pressure!

10 Key Facts you learnt in today’s science club:

  • Air is all around us, taking up space.
  • Air inside a room, is made of the same molecules as the air outside– BUT it varies in air pressure.
  • Air pressure changes when things get hot or cold.
  • When air is tightly packed into a small space it has high air pressure (cold air).
  • When it is spread out it has low air pressure (hot air).
  • BUT air doesn’t like to be different pressures - it likes to be the same!
  • Mr Bernoulli discovered that fast moving air is low air pressure. You can make some fast moving air by blowing onto your hand.
  • If you push a nail into a balloon it pops. But when pressure is spread out evenly across the tips of lots of nails, you have to apply a lot of pressure before it pops.
  • When we increase the air pressure in a bottle containing marshmallows, they shrink. This is because the marshmallows are fluffy and full of air, so the air molecules inside them are also squeezed into a small space and the marshmallows appear to shrink.
  • When you release the pressure by unscrewing the pressure pump, the air escapes and the marshmallows appear to GROW!
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